National Standards for Arts Education:
Visual Arts Standard 5b:  Students will describe meanings of artworks by analyzing how specific works were created and how they relate to historical and cultural contexts.

I. Show students a self portrait by Andy Warhol. 
Fig. 13 Self Portrait  by Andy Warhol

II. Give a writing assignment:
“In what ways do Andy Warhol’s self portraits reflect his American culture and ideals?  How does his approach to self portrait compare to those of the three Mexican artists that we studied?”

 III. To extend the ideas of  culture and context, show students the self portraits of contemporary Mexican artists:

Autorretrato by Sergio Hernandez (1991)
This artist was born in Oaxaca and his work shows the inspiration of the same sources as Tamayo and Toledo.
Fig. 14 Autorretrato by Sergio Hernandez (1991)

Autorretrato como otra persona  (Self Portrait as Someone Else)  by Monica Castillo (1996)
This piece could spark a discussion of an internal conflict  between the Indian and Spanish heritages of many Mexicans and is communicated so strikingly by this artist.
Fig. 15 Autorretrato como otra persona by Monica Castillo (1996)

Lesson Resources:

  • Emerich, Luis Carlos; New Mexican Arts; (translation from original Spanish,Monica Mayer); Frugosa, S.A. de C.V., 1997.
  • Ratcliff, Carter;  Andy Warhol; Cross River Press, Ltd,; 1983.
  • Retratos: 2,000 Years of Latin American Portraits, San Antonio Museum of Art; National Portrait Gallery; Smithsonian Institution; and El Museo del Barrio, 2005.

Part I Evaluation Criteria:

  • participation in group discussions
  • quality of sketchbook-journal entries
  • writing